|Molecular Weight||40.078 g/mol|
|APS||<1-2 mm (Can be Customized)|
|Melting Point||842 °C|
|Boiling Point||1484 °C|
The chemical element Calcium (Ca), atomic number 20, is the fifth element and the third most abundant metal in the earth’s crust. The metal is trimorphic, harder than sodium, but softer than aluminum. Just like beryllium and aluminum, and unlike alkali metals, it does not cause skin burns. It is less reactive than alkali metals and other alkaline earth metals.
Calcium ions dissolved in water are deposited in pipes and boilers, and also when the water is hard, that is, when it contains too much calcium or magnesium. This can be avoided by using water softeners. In industry, metallic calcium is separated from molten calcium chloride by electrolysis. It is obtained by treating carbonated minerals with hydrochloric acid or a similar by-product of the Solvay process for carbonates.
In contact with air, calcium forms an oxide nitride coating which protects it from further corrosion. It burns in the air at high temperatures to form nitrides.
The industrially produced metal readily reacts with water and acids, forming hydrogen-containing significant amounts of ammonia and hydrocarbons as impurities.
The metal is used in aluminum-bearing alloys to aid in the removal of bismuth from lead and to control the carbon content of graphite in molten iron. It is also used as a deoxidizing agent in the manufacture of many plates of steel; as a reducing agent in the production of metals such as chromium, thorium, zirconium, and uranium, and as a separation material for gas mixtures of nitrogen and argon. Calcium is an alloy used in the production of alloys of aluminum, beryllium, copper, lead, and magnesium. It is also used in the manufacture of cement and mortar.