|APS||<5 um (Can be customized)|
|Density||2.2 g/mL at 25 °C|
|Melting Point||3652-3697 °C(lit.)|
Carbon is unique in its chemical properties because it forms a number of components that exceed the combined addition of all other elements when combined with each other.
The largest group of all these components is made up of carbon and hydrogen. We know at least about 1 million organic components and this number is growing rapidly every year. Although the classification is not rigid, carbon forms a different set of compounds that are considered inorganic, in much smaller quantities than organic compounds.
Elemental carbon exists in two well-defined allotropic crystalline forms: diamond and graphite. Other forms with little crystallinity are charcoal and black smoke. Chemically pure carbon can be obtained by the thermal decomposition of sugar (sucrose) in the absence of air. The physical and chemical properties of carbon depend on the crystalline structure of the element.
Elemental carbon is an inert substance, insoluble in water, diluted acids and bases, and organic solvents. At high temperatures, it binds with oxygen to form carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide. With hot oxidizing agents such as nitric acid and potassium nitrate methyl acid C6 (CO2H), 6 is obtained. Among the halogens, only fluorine reacts with elemental carbon. A large number of metals combine with the element at high temperatures to form carbides.
Together with oxygen, it forms three gaseous components: carbon monoxide CO, carbon dioxide CO2 and non-carbon monoxide C3O2. The first two are the most important from an industrial point of view. Carbon forms a compound with halogens with CX4 as the general formula, where X is fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine. At room temperature, tetrafluorocarbon is a gas, tetrachloride is a liquid, and the other two compounds are solid. We also know of mixed carbon tetrahalides. Most important of all may be dichlorodifluoromethane, CCl2F2, called freon.