|Molecular Weight||101.07 g/mol|
|APS||<100 nm (can be customized)|
|Melting Point||2334 °C|
|Boiling Point||4150 °C|
Ruthenium, along with rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium and platinum, form a group of elements called platinum group metals (PGMs).
Ruthenium is a hard white metal. It does not tarnish at room temperature, but oxidizes in the air at around 800 ° C. The metal is not attacked by hot or cold acids or aqua regia, but explosive oxidation occurs when potassium chlorate is added to a solution. It dissolves in molten alkali.
The demand for ruthenium is growing: the metal is used in the electronics industry (50%) and in the chemical industry (40%), with smaller quantities used for alloys. In electronics, it was mainly used for electrical contacts, but now most of it is used in chip resistors. In the chemical industry it is used in anodes for the production of chlorine in electrochemical cells.
The metal is used as a hardener for palladium and platinum and small additions improve the corrosion resistance of titanine. It is used in alloys and electrical contact wires, jewelry, nibs and tool joints. It is also used in alloys with cobalt, molybdenum, nickel, tungsten and other metals. Ruthenium compounds are used to color ceramics and glass.
Ruthenium is also a versatile catalyst used, for example, to remove H2S from refineries and other industrial processes, to make ammonia from natural gas, and to make acetic acid from methanol.
Some ruthenium complexes absorb light across the entire visible spectrum and are actively being explored in various potential solar energy technologies.